Where am I? > Home > Articles > Volume 45
Research article

https://doi.org/10.48027/hnb.45.093

Distribution of the grass snake (Natrix natrix) and dice snake (N. tessellata) in Bulgaria


Yurii V. Kornilev https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8596-8728; Georgi Popgeorgiev https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7625-8898; Dimitar Plachiyski https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3579-2517; Angel Dyugmedzhiev https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3765-7076; Vladimir Mladenov https://orcid.org/0009-0001-9515-8729; Kostadin Andonov https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3736-5946; Simeon Lukanov https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2546-6590; Emiliya Vacheva https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3008-6648; Miroslav Slavchev https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2426-8875; Borislav Naumov https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2146-208X

1 September 2023 · volume 45 · (issue 9) · pp. 239–254 · PDF [full text]

Abstract: We summarise the distribution of the two species of the genus Natrix occurring in Bulgaria, based on records from 147 peer-reviewed publications, grey literature, and data repositories, combined with unpublished data. This is the first extensive mapping for N. natrix; records fall in 560 cells of the 10-km MGRS/UTM grid, of which 102 cells (18.2%) were with published information we could not confirm with new data, 175 (31.2%) were with published and confirmed, and 283 (50.5%) were with new localities. For N. tessellata we increased the number of cells with records by 64% compared to the 2011 mapping, by identifying 445 cells with localities: 162 cells (36.4%) were previously published and unconfirmed, 152 (34.1%) were published and confirmed, and 131 (29.4%) were with new data. Gross climatic conditions for records with exact locations were assigned following the Köppen-Geiger classification; the distribution for both species does not seem to be highly correlated to climate as they were found in 9 of the 12 Köppen-Geiger classes present, only missing from the 3 classes that are limited to high elevations in Bulgaria and account for less than 1% of the area. The vertical distribution of the observations supports our knowledge that the species are most numerous at lower elevations (92.4% of records were <1000 m above sea level for N. natrix and 92.6% were <500 m for N. tessellata). Higher elevations and some lowlands remain relatively understudied and future sampling will likely reveal new localities for both species.

Keywords: Balkan Peninsula, elevation, mapping, range, Reptilia, Serpentes

References [159]

Ajtić R., Tomović L., Sterijovski B., Crnobrnja-Isailović J., Djordjević S., Djurakić M., Golubović A., Simović A., Arsovski D., Andjelković M., Krstić M., Šukalo G., Gvozdenović S., Aïdam A., Michel C.L., Ballouard J.-M., Bonnet X. 2013 Unexpected life history traits in a very dense population of Dice snakes. Zoologischer Anzeiger 252 (3): 350–358.
Andonov K., Natchev N., Kornilev Y.V., Tzankov N. 2017 Does sexual selection influence ornamentation of hemipenes in Old World snakes? The Anatomical Record 300: 1680–1694. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23622
Angelov A. 1956 Hydrologische und hydrobiologische Untersuchungen über den Rabischa-See. Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia, Faculté de Biologie, Géologie et Géographie 49: 1–30. (In Bulgarian)
Anguélov P. 1960 Etudes sur l’entomofaune du parc “Delassement et culture” (l’île au milieu de Maritza) près de Plovdiv, avec quelques notes faunologiques. Annuaire des Musées de Plovdiv 3: 7–40. (In Bulgarian)
Anonymous 1997 Reserve “Kaliakra”. Management plan. Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, 68 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Anonymous 2002 Protected site “Poda”. Management plan 2002–2010. BSPB and Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme and MoEW, 153 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Asztalos M., Ayaz D., Bayrakcı Y., Afsar M., Tok C.V., Kindler C., Jablonski D., Fritz U. 2021 It takes two to tango – Phylogeography, taxonomy and hybridization in grass snakes and dice snakes (Serpentes: Natricidae: Natrix natrix, N. tessellata). Vertebrate Zoology 71: 813–834. https://doi.org/10.3897/vz.71.e76453
Bachvarov G. 1969 On the trematodofauna of some reptiles in Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Central Helminthological Laboratory 13: 191–196. (In Bulgarian)
Bachvarov G., Kirin D. 1994 Contribution to the studies of the trematode fauna of the common water snake Natrix natrix (L. 1758) (Reptilia, Colubridae) in Bulgaria. Scientific works of PU “P Hilendarski” – Biology, Animalia 30: 29–33. (In Bulgarian)
Balej P., Jablonski D. 2016 Balcanica.info – Amphibians and Reptiles of the Balkans. http://en.balcanica.info/.
Bartosik M., Bechkov V., Tzenov V. 1981 Morfologie et reparation de Coluber rubriceps (Venzmer, 1919), Colubridae, Serpentes) en Bulgarie. Acta zoologica bulgarica 17: 52–57.
Batchvarov G.K. 1974 Ophiotaenia europaea Odening, 1963 (G. Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911) - de nouveaux genre et espèce de l’helmintofaune des reptiles chez nous. Natura 7: 103–104. (In Russian)
Beck H.E., Zimmermann N.E., McVicar T.R., Vergopolan N., Berg A., Wood E.F. 2018 Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Scientific Data 5: 180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
Beron P. 1966 Contribution to the study of parasitic mites on reptiles in Bulgaria. Bulletin de L’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 22: 51–63. (In Bulgarian)
Beron P., Beshkov V., Popov V., Vassilev M., Pandurska R., Ivanova T. 2000 Biodiversity of small vertebrates (Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Mammalia – Insectivora, Chiroptera and Rodentia) in the Rila National Park. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow, 333–360. (In Bulgarian)
Beschkov V. 1961 Beitrag zur zoogeografischen Untersuchung der Herpetofauna in Bulgarien. Bulletin de L’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 10: 373–383. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1972 Biology and distribution of Rana graeca Blgr. in Bulgaria. 3. Studies on ecology and distribution. Bulletin de L’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 36: 125–136. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1974 Vertical distribution of the snakes in a specific with its species-diverse region of southwestern Bulgaria. Bulletin de L’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 40: 167–173. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1978 Biological and ecological studies of the snakes in Maleshevska Mountain. PhD thesis, Institute of Zoology, BAS. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1978 Study on the effects of the industrial pollution on the amphibians and reptiles in the region of MDK “G. Damyanov” near Pirdop. Ecology, Sofia 4: 3–11. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1986 Striped and non-striped type of colouring of the ringed snake Natrix natrix (L.) (Colubridae, Serpentes) in Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica 31: 32–36. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V. 1998 Classes Amphibia and Reptilia (Amphibians and Reptiles). In: Michev T., Georgiev B., Petrova A., Stoyneva M. (eds) Context and Pensoft, Sofia, 85–86. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V., Dushkov D. 1981 Materials on the batrachophagy and herpetophagy of snakes in Bulgaria. Ecology 9: 3–50. (In Bulgarian)
Beshkov V., Nanev K. 2002 Amphibians and Reptiles in Bulgaria. Pensoft, Sofia–Moscow, 120 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Biserkov V. 1987 The role of reptiles as additional and reservoir hosts in the circulations of helminths in Bulgaria. In: Botev B. (ed.) Current achievements of the Bulgarian zoology. BAS, Sofia, 81–84. (In Bulgarian)
Biserkov V. 1996 New records of platyhelminth parasites from snakes in Bulgaria. Comptes rendus de l’Académie Bulgare des Sciences 49: 73–75.
Biserkov V., Naumov B. 2012 Changes after 1948 in the habitats of amphibians and reptiles in the area of the Srebarna lake biosphere reserve. In: Uzunov Y., Georgiev B., Varadinova E., Ivanova N., Pehlivanov L., Vasilev V. (eds) Ecosystems of the Biosphere Reserve Srebarna Lake. Professor Marin Drinov Academic Publishing House, Sofia, 163–183.
Boev Z., Pchelarov G. 1982 Nature reserve “Beli Lom.” Priroda 5: 65–69. (In Bulgarian)
Bolkay S. 1924 A list of the amphibians and reptiles in the Bosnian-Hercegovian Land-Museum, with morphological, biological and zoogeographical notes. Spomenik srpske kralyevske akademiye 61: 1–37.
Bozhkov D. 1958 Contributions to the study of trematodes on snakes in Bulgaria. Bulletin de l’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 7: 417–424. (In Bulgarian)
Brischoux F., Kornilev Y.V. 2014 Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: Implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes. PLoS ONE 9: e92617. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092617
Brischoux F., Kornilev Y.V., Lillywhite H.B. 2017 Physiological and behavioral responses to salinity in coastal Dice snakes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 214: 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.09.003
Buchvarov G., Kirin D., Kostadinova A. 2000 Platyhelminth parasite assemblages in two species of snakes Natrix natrix and Natrix tessellata (Reptilia, Colubridae) from Bulgaria: Seasonal variation. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 1: 124–131.
Buresch I., Zonkow J. 1934 Untersuchungen über die Verbreitung der Reptilien und Amphibien in Bulgarien und auf der Balkanhalbinsel. II Teil: Schlangen (Serpentes). Mitteilungen aus den Königlichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia 7: 106–188. (In Bulgarian)
Buresch I., Zonkow J. 1942 Untersuchungen über die Verbreitung der Reptilien und Amphibien in Bulgarien und auf der Balkanhalbinsel. IV. Teil: Froschlurche (Amphibia, Salientia). Mitteilungen aus den Königlichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia 15: 68–165. (In Bulgarian)
Buseke D. 1982 Die Schlangen der südbulgarischen Schwazmeerküste. Sauria 4: 5–9.
CAS 2023 CAS Herpetology Collection Database. Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences.
Chlebicki A. 1985 Notatki herpetologiczne z gór Sakar (Tracija). Przeglad Zoologiczny 29: 193–198.
Cogălniceanu D., Samoilă C., Tudor M., Skolka M. 2008 Amphibians and reptiles from the Black Sea coast area between Cape Midia and Cape Kaliakra. In: Făgăraş M. (ed.) Volum cu lucrările Conferinţei de la Constanţa (Mamaia, 26–28 septembrie 2008). EX PONTO, Constanţa, 71–89.
Cyrén O. 1941 Beitrag zur Herpetologie der Balkanhalbinsel. Mitteilungen aus den Königlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia 14: 36–152.
Deleva S., Mollov I., Fidanova V., Mechev A. 2014 Species diversity and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Nature Park “Sinite Kamani” in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria). Ecologia Balkanica 6: 83–92.
Delov V., Peshev D., Vasilev A. 2004 Species composition and tendencies in the distribution of the vertebrates in the region of the Botanical Garden – Varna. Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia “St Kliment Ohridski” 96: 191–196.
Dietrich N. 1998 Umweltschutz - ein Fremdwort im Hinterland der Bulgarischen Schwarzmeerkuste. Elaphe 6: 100–102.
Dobrev S., Dimitrov M. 1997 Ropotamo. Management Plan. Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Burgas, 163 pp.
Domozetski L. 2013 New localities of Eastern Montpellier Snake – Malpolon insignitus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) from Southwestern Bulgaria. ZooNotes 41: 1–4.
Dyugmedzhiev A., Slavchev M., Naumov B. 2019 Emergence and dispersal of snakes after syntopic hibernation. Herpetozoa 32: 149–157. https://doi.org/10.3897/herpetozoa.32.e37347
Dyugmedzhiev A.V., Popgeorgiev G.S., Tzankov N.D., Naumov B.Y. 2020 Population estimates of the Nose-horned viper Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) (Reptilia: Viperidae) from five populations in Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica 72: 397–407.
Funk A., Koláčová K. 2011 Poznámky k pozorování výskytu herpetofauny v jihovýchodním Bulharsku a k měření teploty při sledování aktivity obojživelníků a plazů. Herpetologické informace 10: 10–14.
GBIF.org 2023 GBIF occurrence download Natrix natrix (20 March 2023). GBIF.org https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.pe3585
GBIF.org 2023 GBIF occurrence download Natrix tessellata (20 March 2023). GBIF.org https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.9gnvxd
Genov T. 1969 Natural infestation of the vertebrates from the reservation “Srebarna” with plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei-europaei (Rudolphi, 1819) – Diphyllobothriidae (Cestoidea). Bulletin of the Central Helminthological Laboratory 13: 197–209. (In Bulgarian)
Georgiev D. 1998 Natural complex “Durankulashko Lake”. Management plan. Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Varna, 127 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Georgiev D. 2003 Management plan of protected site Shablensko Lake. Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Varna, 130 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Georgiev D. 2004 Material on the diet of otter (Lutra lutra L., 1758) from Bulgaria. Université de Plovdiv “P Hilendarski” Travaux Scientifiques 40: 165–172. (In Bulgarian)
Georgiev D., Georgiev D. 2018 Herpetofauna of Stara Zagora, southern Bulgaria: Species composition and distribution along the natural habitat–urban areas gradient. Trakia Journal of Sciences 4: 270–274.
Grozdanov A., Peshev H., Stoynov E., Vangelova N., van Leest M., Wielpstra H., Parvanov D. 2016 Contribution to the faunistic research and conservation of the herpetofauna of northern Kresna Gorge and some adjacent areas. Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia “St Kliment Ohridski”, Faculte de Biologie 101: 44–54.
Gruschwitz M., Lenz S., Mebert K., Laňka V. 1999 Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) - Würfelnatter. In: Böhme W. (ed.) Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden, 581–644.
Guicking D., Lawson R., Joger U., Wink M. 2006 Evolution and phylogeny of the genus Natrix (Serpentes: Colubridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87: 127–143.
Guicking D., Joger U., Wink M. 2002 Molecular phylogeography of the Viperine snake Natrix maura and the Dice snake Natrix tessellata: First results. Biota 3: 49–59.
Hecht G. 1930 Systematik, Ausbreitungsgeschichte und Oekologie der europäischen Arten der Gattung Tropidonotus (Kuhl) H. Boie. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 16: 244–397.
Hristovich G. 1892 Materials for studying the Bulgarian fauna. Sbornik za narodni umotvoreniya, nauka i knizhnina 7: 413–428. (In Bulgarian)
Kabisch K. 1999 Natrix natrix (Laurenti, 1768) - Ringelnatter. In: Böhme W. (ed.) Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden, 513–580.
Kabisch K. 1966 Zur Lebensweise der Wuerfelnatter. Natrix tessellata (Laurenti) in Bulgarien. Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 28: 273–276.
Kabisch K. 1966 Herpetologische Exkursionen in die Umgebung von Sofia. Aquarien-Terrarien 13: 131–135.
Kabisch K. 1972 Die Schlangeninsel bei Arkutino. Aquarien-Terrarien 18: 410–412.
Karapetkova M. 1994 Wirbeltiere. In: Russev B. (ed.) Limnologie der Bulgarischen Donauzuflüsse. Verlag “Paper Tiger,” Sofia, 175–185. (In Bulgarian)
Kindler C., Böhme W., Corti C., Gvoždík V., Jablonski D., Jandzik D., Metallinou M., Široký P., Fritz U. 2013 Mitochondrial phylogeography, contact zones and taxonomy of grass snakes (Natrix natrix, N. megalocephala). Zoologica Scripta 42: 458–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12018
Kindler C., Chèvre M., Ursenbacher S., Böhme W., Hille A., Jablonski D., Vamberger M., Fritz U. 2017 Hybridization patterns in two contact zones of grass snakes reveal a new Central European snake species. Scientific Reports 7: 7378. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07847-9
Kirin D. 1994 Contributions to the trematode fauna of the Dice snake Natrix tessellata (Laur, 1786) (Reptilia, Colubridae) in Bulgaria. Scientific works of PU “P Hilendarski” – Biology, Animalia 30: 35–39. (In Bulgarian)
Kirin D. 1995 Contribution to the cestode fauna of the reptiles (Reptilia) in Bulgaria. Scientific works of PU “P Hilendarski” – Biology, Animalia 31: 77–80. (In Bulgarian)
Kirin D. 1996 Helminths (class Trematoda, class Monogenea) of reptiles (Reptilia) from some regions of south Bulgaria. Scientific works of PU “P Hilendarski” – Biology, Animalia 32: 5–11. (In Bulgarian)
Koleva V., Kornilev Y., Telenchev I., Lukanov S., Hristova B., Natchev N. 2017 Salt tolerance’s toll: Prolonged exposure to saline water inflicts damage to the blood cells of Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata). Web Ecology 17: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.5194/we-17-1-2017
Kornilev Y.V., Plachiyski D., Popgeorgiev G. In press Ecological modeling of the Grass snake (Natrix natrix) and Dice snake (N. tessellata) in Bulgaria confirms their wide-ranging distribution. North-western Journal of Zoology.
Kovachev V. 1894 Materials for studying the Bulgarian fauna. Periodical of the Bulgarian Literary Society 47: 746–747. (In Bulgarian)
Kovachev V. 1907 Several species and varieties new for the Bulgarian fauna. Periodichesko Spisanie 68: 217–218. (In Bulgarian)
Kovachev V. 1912 The herpetofauna of Bulgaria (Reptiles and amphibians). H. G. Danov, Plovdiv, 90 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Kovachev V. 1917 Reptiles (Reptilia) and amphibians (Amphibia) in the occupied in 1912 lands and in the other places. Spisanie na Balgarskata Akademia na Naukite 15: 175–178. (In Bulgarian)
Kovatscheff W. 1903 Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna Bulgariens. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 53: 171–173.
Kowatscheff W. 1905 Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna Bulgariens. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 55: 31–32.
Lepşi J. 1927 Beiträge zur Reptilienfauna der südöstlichen Dobrudscha. Verhandlungen und Mitteilungen des Siebenbürgischen Vereins für Naturwisseschaften zu Hermannstadt 77: 1–24.
Lindfors P. 1971 Herpetologisk “utflykt” till Bulgarien. Snoken 1: 23–24.
Lukanov S. 2020 Amphibian and Reptile Diversity in Protected Site “Reka Veselina” – Current State and Prospects for Future Conservation. Ecologia Balkanica 12: 195–199.
Malakova N., Sakelarieva L., Pulev A. 2018 Species composition of the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Natura 2000 Site “Oranovski Prolom - Leshko”, Bulgaria. ZooNotes 124: 1–4.
Manolev G., Philipova L., Pulev A., Sakelarieva L. 2019 A checklist of the herpetofauna in the Bulgarian part of Hadzhidimovo Gorge (South-western Bulgaria). Ecologia Balkanica 11: 17–26.
Marosi B., Zinenko O., Ghira I., Crnobrnja-Isailović J., Lymberakis P. Sos T., Popescu O. 2012 Molecular data confirm recent fluctuations of northern border of dice snake (Natrix tessellata) range in Eastern Europe. North-western Journal of Zoology 8: 374–377.
Michev T. 1958 The Grass snake (Natrix natrix). Priroda i Znanie 9: 17–18. (In Bulgarian)
Michev T.M. (ed.) 2003 Management plan for the managed reserve “Atanasovsko Lake.” Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Sofia, 103 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Mollov I. 2012 Another case of melanism in the Grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (Reptilia: Colubridae) from Bulgaria. ZooNotes 28: 1–3.
Mollov I. 2016 The Herpetological Collection of the Department of Ecology and Environmental Conservation, Faculty of Biology, University of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum – Plovdiv 1: 1–10.
Mollov I., Natchev N.D., Koynova T.V., Kambourov I.Z., Rashkov M.H., Dimitrov D.A., Todorov O.B., Petrova T.D., Vladov K.B., Uzunov S.G. 2022 Distribution of the amphibians and reptiles along the southern Black Sea Coast and Strandzha Nature Park (SE Bulgaria). Ecologia Balkanica Special Edition 5: 43–74.
Mollov I., Velcheva I. 2010 Spatial distribution and a retrospective analysis of the herpetofauna in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Ecologia Balkanica 2: 25–38.
Mollov I., Kirov K., Petrova S., Georgiev D., Velcheva I. 2013 Assessing the influence of the automobile traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in the buffer zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria). Ecologia Balkanica 5: 31–39.
Müller L. 1939 Uber die von den Herren Dr. v. Jordans und Dr. Wolf im Jahre 1938 im Bulgarien gesammelten Amphibien und Reptilien. Mitteilungen aus den Königlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia 13: 1–17.
Natchev N., Telenchev I., Mladenov V., Georgieva R., Redl E. 2016 Data of herpetofauna-vehicle collisions in the region of Burgas city, SE Bulgaria. 55th Science Conference of Ruse University, Bulgaria, 128–132.
Naumov B. 1999 Ecological and ethological studies on the Agile frog – Rana dalmatina Bonaparte 1840 – in Lozen Mountain. Thesis, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. (In Bulgarian)
Naumov B., Lukanov S., Vacheva E. 2020 Social media in service of biodiversity conservation: providing new locality for Ichthyosaura alpestris (Laurenti, 1768), a glacial relict in Bulgaria. Herpetology Notes 13: 181–183.
Naumov B., Tomović L. 2005 A case of melanism in Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (Reptilia: Colubridae) in Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica 57: 253–254.
Naumov B., Tzankov N., Donchev K., Petrov B., Stojanov A., Popgeorgiev G., Mollov I., Beshkov V. 2016 The herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia) of Vrachanska Planina Mountains – species composition, distribution and conservation. In: Bechev D., Georgiev D. (eds) Faunistic diversity of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park. ZooNotes, Suppl. 3: 231–257.
Naumov B., Tzankov N., Popgeorgiev G.S., Stojanov A., Kornilev Y.V. 2011 The Dice snake (Natrix tessellata) in Bulgaria: Distribution and morphology. Mertensiella 18: 288–297.
Naumov B.Y., Popgeorgiev G.S., Dyugmedzhiev A., Beshkov V. 2020 On the maximum sizes in snake species (Reptilia: Serpentes) from Bulgaria. Ecologia Balkanica 12: 13–20.
Nessing R. 1989 Zum Vorkommen der Zauneidechse Lacerta agilis bosnica Schreiber, 1912 in Süd-Bulgarien. Salamandra 25: 120–121.
Nikolova S. 2005 Biodiversity and ecological assessment of the state of natural landmark “Smolyan Lakes.” In: Yankov P., Petrova A. (eds) Conservation of biodiversity and management of protected territories. Collection of scientific works from Student scientific conference, Sofia 2005. BFB and Biology Department, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski,” Sofia, 140–148. (In Bulgarian)
Nöllert A., Nöllert C., Ritter A. 1986 Einige Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna der bulgarischen Schwarzenmeerkuste und Sudwestbulgariens (Teil 2 - Die Reptilien). Herpetofauna 8: 30–34.
Obst F.J. 1973 Die Mittelmeer-Erdkrote, Bufo bufo spinosus Daudin, neu fur Bulgarien (Amphibia, Anura). Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 32: 149–163.
Obst F.J., Geissler L. 1982 Triturus vulgaris graecus (Wolterstorff, 1905) neu fur Bulgarien. Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 9: 117–119.
Panner T. 2009 Bemerkungen zur Herpetoauna des Emine-Balkan mit neuem nordöstlichsten Verbreitungsnachweis für Platyceps collaris in Bulgarien. Elaphe 17: 48–49.
Paspaleva-Antonova M. 1961 Contribution to the ornithofauna of the Srebarna reserve, Silistrensko. Bulletin de L’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 10: 139–163. (In Bulgarian)
Peshev D., Mitev D. 1987 Species composition of amphibians, reptiles and mammals in the region of Drama village, Yambol district. Université de Plovdiv “P Hilendarski” Travaux Scientifiques 25: 101–106. (In Bulgarian)
Peshev D., Delov V., Tzankov N., Vasilev A. 2005 Specific characteristic and distribution trends of the vertebrate fauna in the basin of Rilska river. Annuaire de l’Universite de Sofia “St Kliment Ohridski”, 96, livre 4 - 10ème session scientifique, Sofia ’03, partie 2: 177–189.
Peshev Ts., Simeonov S. 1964 Species composition of the vertebrate animals in the region of v. Karash, Vratchansko. Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia, Faculté de Biologie, Géologie et Géographie 57: 81–91. (In Bulgarian)
Petrov B. 2004 The herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia) of the Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece). In: Beron P., Popov A. (eds) Biodiversity of Bulgaria. 2. Biodiversity of Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece). Pensoft and National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, 863–879.
Petrov B., Beshkov V. 2001 Amphibians (Amphibia) and Reptiles (Reptilia) in the Kresna Gorge (SW Bulgaria). In: Beron P. (ed.) Biodiversity of Kresna Gorge (SW Bulgaria). National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, 297–303. (In Bulgarian)
Petrov B., Tzankov N., Strijbosch H., Popgeorgiev G.S., Beshkov V. 2006 The herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia) of the Western Rhodopes mountain (Bulgaria and Greece). In: Beron P. (ed.) Biodiversity of Bulgaria. 3. Biodiversity of Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece) I. Pensoft and National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, 863–912.
Petrov B., Stoev P., Beshkov V. 2001 A review on the species composition and distribution of the amphibians (Amphibia) and reptiles (Reptilia) in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain, Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 13: 127–153. (In Bulgarian)
Petrov B., Stoev P. 1997 Reptiles (Reptilia) in Eastern Rhodopes: Species composition, distribution, relative abundance, conservation measures, territories with high species diversity. In: Conservation of biodiversity in Eastern Rhodopes. Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Sofia, 240–263.
Popgeorgiev G.S., Tzankov N., Kornilev Y.V., Plachyiski D., Naumov B., Stoyanov A. 2014 Changes in agri-environmental practices pose a threat to the herpetofauna: A case study from Besaparski Ridove Special Protection Area (Natura 2000), southern Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica Suppl. 5: 157–169.
Popgeorgiev G.S., Tzankov N., Kornilev Y.V., Naumov B., Stojanov A. 2010 Species diversity of amphibians and reptiles in the special protected area “Besaparski ridove”, Southern Bulgaria. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 24: 661–666.
Popgeorgiev G.S., Tzankov N., Kornilev Y.V., Naumov B., Stoyanov A. 2014 Amphibians and reptiles in Ponor Special Protection Area (Natura 2000), western Bulgaria: Species diversity, distribution and conservation. Acta zoologica bulgarica Suppl. 5: 85–96.
Popgeorgiev G.S., Naumov B., Kornilev Y.V., Vergilov V., Slavchev M., Lukanov S., Dyugmegdzhiev A., Stoyanov A., Dobrev D., Tzankov N. 2019 Diversity and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Bulgarian part of the lower Danube. In: Shurulinkov P., Hubenov Z., Beshkov S., Popgeorgiev G. (eds) Biodiversity of the Bulgarian-Romanian section of the Lower Danube. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 283–314.
Popova S.G., Popova E.D., Grozdanov A.P., Petrov P.D., Petrov P.R., Zlatanova D.P. 2022 New data on the tetrapod fauna of Lyulin Mts., Bulgaria. Ecologia Balkanica 14: 161–169.
Pulev A., Sakelarieva L. 2011 Serpentes (Reptilia) in the territory of the Blagoevgrad Municipality. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Conference – FMNS2011 8–11 June 2011. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, South-West University “Neofit Rilski,” Blagoevgrad, 618–626.
Pulev A., Sakelarieva L. 2013 Herpetofauna in the city of Blagoevgrad, south-western Bulgaria. BioDiscovery 7: 1–6.
Pulev A., Domozetski L., Sakelarieva L., Stoyanov K. 2014 Three new records of Eryx jaculus Linnaeus, 1758 (Reptilia: Boidae) in South-western Bulgaria. Journal of Balkan Ecology 17 (4): 403–9.
Rusev B. 1966 Hydrobiological studies of Maritza River. I. In: Fauna of Thrace. Part III. BAS, Sofia, 231–291. (In Bulgarian)
Schlüter U. 2006 Die Herpetofauna der bulgarischen Schwarzmeerküste - Teil 3: Schlangen. Elaphe 14: 59–66.
Sillero N., Campos J., Bonardi A., Corti C., Creemers R., Crochet P.-A., Crnobrnja Isailović J., Denoël M., Ficetola G.F., Gonçalves J., Kuzmin S., Lymberakis P., de Pous P., Rodríguez A., Sindaco R., Speybroeck J., Toxopeus B., Vieites D.R., Vences M. 2014 Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia 35: 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685381-00002935
Simeonov S., Boev Z. 1988 Studies on the diet of the Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo (L.) in Bulgaria. Ecology 21: 47–56. (In Bulgarian)
Simeonov S. 1985 Studies on the nesting biology and diet of the Tawny owl (Strix aluco L.) in Bulgaria. Ecology 17: 42–48. (In Bulgarian)
Simeonov Y., Totzev M. 1997 Morphometrics. In: Jordanova M., Donchev D. (eds) Geography of Bulgaria. Physical Geography. Socio-economic Geography. “Prof. Marin Drinov” Academic Publishing House, Sofia, 49–54. (In Bulgarian)
Slavchev M., Popgeorgiev G.S., Tzankov N.D. 2019 Species diversity of amphibians and reptiles in relation to habitat diversity at a Natura 2000 area in NW Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica 71: 377–384.
Speybroeck J. 2005 Herpetological trip in southern Bulgaria – May 2005. Personal publication 1–39.
Speybroeck J., Beukema W., Bok B., Van Der Voort J., Velikov I. 2016 Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Britain and Europe. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 432 pp.
Stoev P. 2000 On the distribution, biology and ecology of amphibians and reptiles in the Derventski Heights and the Sakar Mountain, South-East Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 12: 59–69.
Stojanov A., Tzankov N., Naumov B. 2011 Die Amphibien und Reptilien Bulgariens. Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 588 pp.
Stoychev S., Petrova A. 2003 Protected areas in Eastern Rhodopes and Sakar Mountains. BSBP/BirdLife Bulgaria, Sofia, 49 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Stoyneva M.P., Michev T.M. 2007 Database of Bulgarian non-lotic wetlands and their biodiversity. Publ. House Svetlostrouy, Sofia, 364 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Šukalo G., Đorđević S., Gvozdenović S., Simović A., Anđelković M., Blagojević V., Tomović L. 2014 Intra- and inter-population variability of food preferences of two Natrix species on the Balkan peninsula. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9 (1): 123−136.
Sura P. 1981 Notes on the reptiles of Bulgaria. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 3: 25–28.
Thieme U. 1986 Die Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna der südost-bulgarischen Küste. Teil IV Reptilien III. Sauria 8: 3–6.
Todorov O. 2010 Herpetofauna in Pomorie Lake area. In: Collection of reports to the integrated management plan for the protected area “Pomorie Lake” BG0000152 and Protected Area “Pomorie” BG0000620. Green Balkans, Plovdiv, 112–116. (In Bulgarian)
Trayanov R., Filipova D. 2005 Fauna of “Zlatni Pyasatsi” Natural Park (amphibians, reptiles and mammals). NUG and PP “Zlatni Pyasatsi,” Varna, 11 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Tuleschkov K. 1959 Beitrag zur Erforschung der Ökologie der Sandotter (Vipera ammodytes (L.) in Bulgarien. Bulletin de l’Institut de Zoologie et Musée, Sofia 8: 169–180. (In Bulgarian)
Tuleshkov K. 1954 The snakes and the national economy. Priroda i Znanie 7: 3–6. (In Bulgarian)
Tzankov N., Slavchev M. 2016 Diversity and relationships of vertebrate fauna of Pastrina Hill, a poorly studied hot-spot karstic region in northwestern Bulgaria. Acta zoologica bulgarica 68: 55–70.
Tzankov N., Grozdanov A., Peshev D., Vasilev A. 2011 Vertical distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in Rilska river basin (Rila Mountains, Southwest Bulgaria). Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia “St Kliment Ohridski”, Faculte de Biologie, Livre 1 - Zoologie, Tome 99: 103-110
Tzankov N., Naumov B., Grozdanov A., Peshev D., Vasilev A. 2009 The herpetofauna of northern Black Sea coast. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 23: 123–126.
Tzankov N., Popgeorgiev G.S., Naumov B., Stoyanov A., Kornilev Y.V., Petrov B., Dyugmedzhiev A., Vergilov V., Draganova R., Lukanov S., Westerström A. 2014 Identification guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Vitosha Nature Park. Directorate of Vitosha Nature Park, Sofia, 248 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Tzankov N.D., Popgeorgiev G.S., Kornilev Y.V., Petrov B., Zidarova S., Stefanov T. 2015 Sofia. In: Kelcey J.G. (ed.) Vertebrates and invertebrates of European cities: Selected non-avian fauna. Springer, New York, 179–206.
Undjian E. 2000 Die Lurche und Kriechtiere des Lomtales und des Naturparkes “Russenski Lom” Bezirke Russe und Rasgrad Nordostbulgarien. Priroden Park “Rusenski Lom” Publ., Ruse, 88 pp. (In Bulgarian)
Van Der Voort J. 1998 Zwartezeekust Bulgarije: 4 Mei - 18 Mei 1998. Personal publication 40.
Vasileva S. 2005 Research of the biodiversity in the protected area “Martvitsata”, Popovitsa village, Sadovo district; assuring maintenance and management of the protected area with information. In: Yankov P., Petrova A. (eds) Conservation of the biodiversity and management of the protected areas. BBF and SU “St. Kliment Ohridski,” Sofia, 51–60. (In Bulgarian)
Velcheva I., Kouzmova K., Kostadinova P. 2002 A study of biodiversity in an agricultural region adjacent to the protected “Chinar dere” site. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 3: 673–677.
Velenský P. 1997 Natrix megalocephala Orlov et Tuniyev, 1987: Nový druh evropské herpetofauny? Gazella, Zoo Prague 24: 177–186.
Velikov I. 2011 Photo note: Dice snake feeds on spiny invasive fish. Mertensiella 18: 447.
Veselinov D. 1993 Characteristics of habitats, distribution and protection of the alpine newt (Triturus alpestris / Laurenti 1768) in Bulgaria. MSc thesis, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. (In Bulgarian)
Werner F. 1898 Prilozi poznavanju faune Reptilija i Batrahija Balkanskog Poluostrova. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini, Sarajevo 10: 131–156.
Yankov P. 2001 National park “Central Balkan”. Management plan. 2001–2010. MoEW, Sofia, 327 pp.
Zauner J. 2019 Amphibien- und Reptilienfunde im Südosten und Südwesten Bulgariens. Sauria, Berlin 41: 1–16.
ZFMK 2021 Digital Cataloque of the Leibniz-Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change. Leibniz-Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change. https://collections.leibniz-lib.de.

Supplementary materials [1]

01
Document title: Localities for observations of Natrix natrix and N tessellata in Bulgaria, based on the 10x10 km MGRS grid (Military Grid Reference System, UTM zone 35N, datum WGS 1984)
Kind of document: Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)
MIME type: application/pdf
Document name: 000525000452023-01.pdf
https://doi.org/10.48027/hnb.45.093/01

— views: 609 (updated daily)

Cite as

Kornilev Yu. V., Popgeorgiev G., Plachiyski D., Dyugmedzhiev A., Mladenov V., Andonov K., Lukanov S., Vacheva E., Slavchev M., Naumov B. 2023 Distribution of the grass snake (Natrix natrix) and dice snake (N. tessellata) in Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 45: 239–254.

Export: BibTeX EndNote RefMan · JATS metadata

Open access
All journal content is available for free under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).