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[20] Lyulin

Pernik, Sofia District
NATURA 2000: Maculinea nausithous

Coordinates: 23° 8’ 34’’ E, 42° 39’ 45’’ N — Altitude: 883 m — Area: 3449 ha

Description: The region comprises part of the mountain, bearing the same name, between the Sofia and Pernik kettles. It is separated from the Vitosha Mountain by the Vladayska saddle. To the north the Raduilska saddle separates it from the Viskyar Mountain. In geological respect, there are Senon andesites, andesite tufts, and Old Tertiary conglomerates. The ridge is a remnant from a denudation surface. The vegetation is mainly composed of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus dalechampii, Carpinus betulus forests and wide pastures. The mixed forests also comprise birch, lime, sycamore, elm, etc. The bush vegetation consists of Crataegus monogyna, Cornus mas, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, etc.

The butterfly fauna is studied very well. The results from the regional investigation were published by Gogov (1966). The reason for including the area is the presence of important populations of 17 of the target species [see a list below], especially Maculinea nausithous (the only certain locality of this species in the country is found here), Melitaea aurelia and M. britomartis.

Target species: Thymelicus acteon, Carterocephalus palaemon, Zerynthia polyxena, Parnassius mnemosyne, P. apollo, Pseudophilotes vicrama, Scolitantides orion, Maculinea arion, M. nausithous, Plebejus sephirus, Erebia medusa, Apatura ilia, Limenitis populi, Melitaea trivia, M. aurelia, M. britomartis, Brenthis hecate.

Wet grassland in the vicinity of beech forests in Lyulin Planina (Photo S. Beshkov, 27 May 2007).
Wet grassland in the vicinity of beech forests in Lyulin Planina

Protection & threats: The region is in the immediate proximity of densely populated areas (the capital Sofia, and the Pernik Town). Its nature is greatly affected by the strong human presence and all human activities, connected with urbanisation and the development of infrastructure, tourism, and forestry, as well as the usage of meadows and pastures. The most serious threats for the region are the construction of Lyulin highway and the landfill near Suhodol.

Other remarks: The following moths of conservation importance have been established here: Hepialus lupulinus dacicus, Proserpinus proserpina, Eriogaster catax, Saturnia pyri, Saturnia spini, Lycia graecarius, Schrankia taenialis, Pseudoxestia apfelbecki, Lithophane smibrunnea, Perigrapha i-cinctum, Ochropleura leucogaster, Dichagyris melanura melanura, Dichagyris renigera renigera, Euplagia quadripunctaria. From them Eriogaster catax and Euplagia quadripunctaria are listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive of the European Union.

Map of Lyulin area
Map of Lyulin area.