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— In skarns, affected by boron metasomatism, along the contact between carbonate rocks and granite (Anthony et al., 2001—2005). One of the rarest gemstones.

Specimen figured

Serendibite — specimen 0438weight: 0.48 ct; shape: pear. Very clean specimen; brilliant style cut.


The section ‘Classification’ presents descriptions of 171 different kinds of natural gemstones (106 mineral species). The Nickel-Strunz systematic order (10th edition) is used. Specimens of the classes shown below are currently available. Since gemmology does not always follow the systematics of minerals in naming, many popular varieties or just ’names’ are also listed.

Classes after Nickel-Strunz

1. Elements
2. Sulphides & sulphosalts
3. Halides
4. Oxides & hydroxides
5. Carbonates (Nitrates)
6. Borates
7. Sulphates
8. Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates
9. Silicates


— The most abundant rare earth elements-bearing mineral, typically hydrothermal, although primary igneous occurrences are known; in granite and alkali syenites and pegmatites; in carbonatites (Anthony et al., 2001—2005). Faceted specimens are very rare.

Specimen figured

Bastnäsite-(Ce) — specimen 0280weight: 0.75 ct; shape: oval. Very clean specimen; very good mixed style cut.
Bastnäsite-(Ce) — specimen 0280